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Inthe republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared themselves a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Today Serbian is the official language of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Other Slavic languages include Russian, Polish and Ukrainian. Vowels can be long or short. Serbian has a smaller inventory of sounds than other Slavic languages.
In the Orthodox areas of Serbia and Bosnia, Glagolitic was replaced by the Cyrillic alphabet in the 12th century. The oldest Cyrillic Church Slavonic manuscripts from the area, which show local dialect features, are the Miroslav Gospel and Vukan Gospel, dating to the 12 and 13th centuries. Serbian is a part of the South Slavic sub-group of Slavic.
New York: Cambridge. Word order in the sentence can vary, but is usually SVO subject-verb-object. In the s, with considerable fighting, the republic of Yugoslavia broke up and four of its six republics petitioned for international recognition as independent states.
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Ekavian is spoken in most of Serbia, with its cultural center in Belgrade, and Ijekavian is spoken in western Serbia, Montenegro, and Bosnia and Hercegovina as well as parts of Croatia. Columbus, OH: Slavica Publishers. Bugarski, R. Hawkesworth, eds. South Slavs including tribes of Croats and Serbs arrived in the Balkans in the 6th and 7th centuries.
London: Blackwell Publishers. Adjectives agree with their noun in grammatical gender, and case. New York: H. Wilson Company.
The Turks were expelled from the Balkans inwhereupon Montenegro and the Principality of Serbia were granted recognition as independent states. Serbian is a member of the Slavic branch of Indo-European languages.
There are 25 consonants and five vowels. With the break-up of Yugoslavia in the s, advocacy for a return to national languages played a central role in bolstering the self-identification of the various emerging states. Prior to this, the Serbian literary language had been based on Church language. Today Serbian is spoken by a total of over 11 million speakers. His other son, later canonized as Saint Sava, established an independent Serbian Church, recognized by Constantinople, in The earliest evidence of written language in Serbia was produced in this period and is found in the Temnik inscription, a Cyrillic manuscript that dates from the 11th or 12th century.
Although Serbian and Croatian are similar in phonology, morphology and syntax, the differences between Serbian and Croatian are perhaps most apparent lexically. The first Cyrillic book, an Orthodox hymnal, was published in Montenegro in When publishing ceased under Ottoman rule, the Serbian literary language was kept alive by the Church. Language Planning in Yugoslavia. In fact, one can effectively trace the political history of Serbia through the twists and turns of its language policy.
However, today few nouns have vocative forms and the locative and dative forms are virtually identical. In addition there are large s of Serbian speakers in the U. Smaller communities of Serbian speakers, ing in the low tens of thousands, are found in Hungary, Romania, Albania and Russia.
Grimes, B. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. In the beginning of the 19th century, when linguistic reforms began, the written language was a hybrid of Russian and Serbian Church Slavonic and local dialect features.
The language continuum known as Serbo-Croatian was the most widely spoken language in the former Yugoslavia, at its peak counting as many as 20 million speakers. There are seven nominal cases in Serbian: nominative, accusative, genitive, locative, dative, vocative, and instrumental.
Another dialect group found is the Torlak group in the eastern part of Serbia, which is distinguished by a gradual loss of case endings as one moves eastward toward Macedonia and Bulgaria. The language that emerged when publishing d in the 18th and 19th centuries was Slaveno-Serbian, a mix of dialect and Church Slavonic features. NY: Cambridge UP. Bright, W. International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, Vols. Main verbs and participles agree with the subject in person, gender and.
Pressure soon after began to build during this time in Yugoslavia to return to nationally based politics and to identify Serbian and Croatian as separate languages.
Benson, Morton. As with other Slavic languages, Serbian has perfective and imperfective verbal aspect. Bulgarian, Macedonian, and Slovene are also South Slavic languages.
Three grammatical genders masculine, feminine, and neuter and two s singular and plural are also distinguished. The most widely spoken of these dialects is Ekavian, which forms the basis for standard Serbian. Although Serbia and Croatia had long existed under very different spheres of influence — Serbia under Ottoman rule and Croatia under Austro-Hungarian rule — the identification of Serbian and Croatian as one unified language took place in the 19th century, in large part in order to secure the basis for an independent South Slavic state.
This reformed Cyrillic alphabet is still used today. Case, grammatical gender and are represented by a single marker fused to the noun.
It is difficult to pinpoint objectively where a dialect ceases to be a dialect and becomes a language. Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian are all closely related linguistically, a fact that le many to consider them one language, Serbo-Croatian, but they have also been identified in various historical contexts as separate languages.
Traditionally, Serbian has borrowed more from western European languages while Croatian has tried to preserve more native Slavic words. Serbian also maintains, mainly in the written language, an aorist and an imperfect verb tense. The original alphabet used by both the Serbs and Croats was Glagolitic, created by the monks Cyril and Methodius in the 9th century for the written language, Old Church Slavonic.
New York: Oxford University Press.
There are three variants, but on the Serbian territory only two are found; these dialects are known as Ekavian and Ijekavian the third variant, Ikavian, is found only in Croatia. By the 10th century, Serbian clans converted to Christianity and following the Church schism ofbecame Orthodox. Some Serbian dialects have remnants of a pitch accent system, meaning that the vowel of the syllable which could be considered the stressed syllable in a word is accented with either a rising pitch or falling pitch.
Garry, J. Rubino, eds. Lampe, J. Yugoslavia as History. Price, G. Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe.